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2013 Vol.50, Issue 2 Preview Page
April 2013. pp. 278-296
Abstract
Wax has been serious problem of flow assurance in low temperature environment such as subsea petroleum production system. In reservoir condition, wax is liquid phase, however, it can be crystallized at the temperature under wax appearance temperature. Wax crystal tends to be agglomerated and deposited containing oil, which becomes wax deposits. Wax deposition mechanisms in subsea petroleum production system are molecular diffusion, shear stripping reduction, aging, particle diffusion & inertia effect, shear dispersion, brownian diffusion and gravity settling. Commonly, temperature gradient between internal wall and center flow is major influential factor on wax deposition among oil composition, pressure, flow rate and roughness of flow line wall. To mitigate wax deposition in the subsea production system, thermal management, wax inhibitor and pigging have been widely applied. These technologies and applications at King field, Gannet D field and Cottonwood field are investigated in this study.
해저와 같은 저온환경에서 석유생산 시 빈번히 집적되는 왁스는 저류층에서 석유에 용해되어 있으나 석유의 온도가 왁스생성온도 이하가 되면 결정으로 석출된다. 왁스결정은 서로 결합하면서 오일 등을 함유한 왁스고형물이 되고 석유생산 환경에 따라 분자확산, 전단응력효과, 왁스경화, 확산관성효과, 전단확산, 브라운확산, 중력침전으로 유동관 내벽에서부터 집적된다. 온도, 석유성분, 압력, 유량, 유동관 내벽 거칠기가 왁스집적에 영향을 미칠 수 있으나 일반적으로 유동관 내벽의 온도와 유동단면적 중앙의 온도구배가 왁스집적에 가장 큰 영향을 미친다. 석유의 온도감소율이 커서 왁스집적속도가 가장 빠른 유동관에서의 주요 왁스집적 제어기술은 유동관을 단열 또는 석유를 가열하여 왁스생성온도 이상으로 유지시키는 열제어법, 왁스결정의 성장을 막거나 용해시키는 왁스억제제 주입법, 유동관에 집적된 왁스를 긁어 제거하는 피깅이 있고 이들을 멕시코 만에 위치한 King 유전, Gannet D 유전과 북해에 위치한 Cottonwood 유전의 해저 석유생산시스템에 적용한 사례를 조사하였다.
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Information
  • Publisher :The Korean Society of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineers
  • Publisher(Ko) :한국자원공학회
  • Journal Title :Journal of the Korean Society of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineers
  • Journal Title(Ko) :한국자원공학회지
  • Volume : 50
  • No :2
  • Pages :278-296